Onderzoek

Interculturele communicatie / Advertising

Dasselaar, L., Van Meurs, F., Le Pair, R., & Korzilius, H. (2005)

Het effect van het gebruik van Engels op websites voor Nederlandse jongeren. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen, 74 (2), 81-92.

Hendriks, B., Starren, M., Hoeken, H., Van den Brandt, C., Nederstigt, U. & Le Pair, R. (2005)

Stijl, cultuur en overtuigingskracht. De invloed van culturele stijlverschillen op de overtuigingskracht van een fondswervingsbrief. Tijdschrift voor taalbeheersing, 27 (3), 230-242.

Hendriks, B., Le Pair, R., Van Meurs, F., Korzilius, H., & Damen, S. (2005)

Does style matter? A Cross-cultural Study into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Busines Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands. Paper presented at the 7th European Convention of the Association for Business Communication, Kopenhagen, 2005, May 26.

Hendriks, B., Le Pair, R., Van Meurs, F., Korzilius, H., & Damen, S. (2005)

Does style matter? A Cross-cultural Study into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Busines Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands. In A. Bülow-Møller (Ed.), Business communication: Making an impact. Proceedings from the 7th European Convention of the Association for Business Communication (pp. 1-10). Copenhagen, 1-10.

Dasselaar, L., Van Meurs, F., Le Pair, R., & Korzilius, H. (2005)

Het effect van het gebruik van Engels op websites voor Nederlandse jongeren. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen, 74 (2), 81-92.

Le Pair, R., & Van Mulken, M. (2007)

Cross-cultural variability in consumer responses to visual metaphors in advertising. Paper presented at the International Conference on Research in Advertising (ICORIA), Escola Superior de Comunicação Social, Lisbon, 29-30 June, 2007.

Le Pair, R., & Van Mulken, M. (2007)

Cross-cultural variability in consumer responses to visual metaphors in advertising. In ICORIA 2007 Papers, 6th International Conference on Research in Advertising, Lisbon, 29-30 June, 2007. ISBN 972-97218.

The purpose of the typology of visual metaphors in advertising (Philips & McQuarrie, 2004) is to link specific structures of pictorial elements to particular consumer responses and to predict the impact that such an element will have. In an experiment, we tested one dimension of this typology, namely the complexity of the visual structure of the metaphor. A total of 374 respondents from The Netherlands, France, and Spain evaluated advertisements on complexity and appreciation. The advertisements were varied according to visual structure. Results show that the pattern of perceived complexity of different visual metaphors is not the same as theoretically predicted, and that there are significant differences depending on respondents’ cultural background. Our findings also suggest that more complex advertisements do not necessarily have greater impact in terms of appreciation of the advertisement.

Le Pair, R., & Van Mulken, M. (2008)

Cross-cultural Differences in the Evaluation of Visual Metaphors in Advertising: Spain, France and the Netherlands. Paper presented at RaAM7: Researching and Applying Metaphor - Metaphor in Cross-Cultural Communication. University of Extremadura, Cáceres (Spain), 29-31 May, 2008.

Kövecses (2005) suggested that cultural context may override the universal mapping in metaphors. The Spanish, French and Dutch cultures differ with regard to the manner in which information is processed: the Spanish and French cultures are known to be high context cultures, whereas Dutch culture can be characterized as a low context culture, in that communication involves intensively elaborate expressions and requires clear, explicit verbal articulation (Hall & Hall, 1990). Recently, two typologies of visual metaphors have been proposed by Forceville (1996, 2005) and Phillips and McQuarrie (2004) that show some striking similarities with regard to disposition of the visual elements – that is the source and target domains. The first part of this paper sums up the results of two experiments that tested the validity of these classifications with Spanish, French and Dutch participants and proposes an overall image of the appreciation of the three metaphor types. In the second part we will focus on the interpretations of the metaphors by the Spanish, French and Dutch participants of the second experiment, in order to verify whether culture influences the foregrounding of the common ground in visual metaphor. It appears that Dutch respondents appreciate visual metaphors less than French or Spanish respondents. However, the overall appreciation pattern of the three metaphor types is identical across the three nationalities. With regard to interpretive diversity, we detected subtle cultural differences in focus and extensiveness.

Le Pair, R. (2008)

Retoriek in advertenties: een intercultureel perspectief. Presentatie voor Rotary International District 1610, Oisterwijk, 6 november 2008

Le Pair, R., & Van Mulken, M. (2010)

Effects of verbal anchoring in visual metaphors on perceived complexity and appreciation. In A.V. Prokhorov (Ed.), Topical Issues of Advertising: Theory and Practice. Vol II, pp. 26-36. Tambov: TSU.

In this paper it is shown that the appreciation and experienced complexity of visual rhetorical figures, such as visual metaphors, can be moderated by adding verbal explanations. Since visual metaphors can differ in complexity – depending on whether the product is explicitly shown or has to be inferred, it is expected that adding verbal explanation of the comparison has a positive influence on experienced complexity and ad liking. Based on an experiment involving 364 participants, results show that experienced complexity indeed decreases when verbal explanation is added to the most complex type of visual metaphor. Contrary to expectation, however, this reduced complexity did not make the advertisements more attractive.

Van Mulken, M., Le Pair, R. & Forceville, Ch. (2010)

The impact of perceived complexity, deviation and comprehension on the appreciation of visual metaphor in advertising across three European countries. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 3418-3430.

With regard to the spatial distribution of pictorial elements in (monomodal) visual (or pictorial) metaphor three types of metaphor can be distinguished: Similes (where the target and source are visually presented separately), Hybrids (where target and source are fused together) and Contextual Metaphors (where either source or target is visually absent). In an experiment using authentic advertisements, it is tested whether consumers’ experience of deviation from expectation and complexity vary with regard to these three types of visual metaphor. Participants in Spain, France and the Netherlands took part in an Internet experiment. Results show that Hybrids are the preferred type of visual metaphor, that deviation from expectation and comprehension have a positive impact on appreciation, and that perceived complexity correlates negatively with appreciation. The effects for nationality are limited.
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Le Pair, R., Hornikx, J., & Van Maaren, E. (2011)

Effect van lage/hoge context op de ervaren complexiteit van visuele metaforen in advertenties. Paper gepresenteerd op VIOT2011-conferentie, Leiden, 22 december 2011.

Pair, R.G. le, Hornikx, J.M.A. & Maaren, E. van (2012, May 31)

Individual context scores explain national differences in perceived comprehension of complex advertisements. Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, ABC Europe Conference.

Meurs, W.F.J. van, Slijpen, E.T.P. & Pair, R.G. le (2012, May 30)

A more difficult job, more expected use of English and higher application intentions: The effects of all-English job advertisements on Dutch potential applicants. Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, ABC Europe Conference.

Hendriks, B., Van Meurs, F., Korzilius, H., Le Pair, R., & Le Blanc-Damen, S. (2012)

Style Congruency and Persuasion: A Cross-Cultural Study Into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Business Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 55 (2), 122-141.
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Research problem: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether style congruency on the dimensions succinct-elaborate and instrumental-affective influenced the persuasiveness of business newsletters in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Research question: Is a writing style more persuasive in a country with cultural preferences that are congruent with this writing style? Literature review: The purpose of the literature review was to present two theoretical frameworks for investigating cross-cultural differences in style preferences. Theories about cross-cultural differences in value orientations show that value orientations can be linked to cross-cultural differences in persuasion. Theories about cross-cultural differences in communication styles show that preferences for particular communication styles can be linked to cultural value orientations. Methodology: Two quantitative experimental studies were conducted among 344 business-to-business customers of a company in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Using seven-point scales, participants evaluated different versions of a newsletter on comprehensibility, attractiveness, and intention to order goods. Statistical analyses included general linear model (GLM) repeated measures and two-way ANOVAs. Results and discussion: Findings reveal limited differences between the Dutch and British participants in preferences for communication styles. Consequently, it may not be worthwhile for organizations to adjust the style of their documents to preferences in different cultures. A limitation of the current study was that it only investigated style preferences for one particular business genre (i.e., newsletters). Future research should investigate stylistic preferences in other business genres and in other cultures.
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Van Mulken, M. & Le Pair, R. (2012)

Appreciation and interpretation of visual metaphors in advertising across three European countries. In MacArthur, Fiona, José Luis Oncins-Martínez, Manuel Sánchez-García and Ana María Piquer-Píriz (eds.), Metaphor in Use. Context, culture, and communication, chapter 8, pp. 177-193. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

The alternative typologies of visual metaphors proposed by Forceville (1996, 2005) and Phillips and McQuarrie (2004) show some striking similarities with regard to disposition of the visual elements, that is, the source and target domains. The first part of this chapter summarizes the results of two experiments that tested the validity of these classifications with Spanish, French, and Dutch participants and proposes an overall image of the appreciation of the three visual metaphor types. The second part focuses on the interpretations of the metaphors by the Spanish, French, and Dutch participants in the second experiment, to verify whether culture influences the interpretation of the common ground in visual metaphor. We detected subtle cultural differences in focus and interpretive diversity.
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Pair, R.G. le, Hornikx, J.M.A. & Maaren, E. van (2014, June, 28)

High/low context explains cultural differences in perceived complexity of complex advertisements. Amsterdam, ICORIA conferentie.

Hornikx, J.M.A. & Pair, R.G. le (2017)

The influence of high-/low-context culture on perceived ad complexity and liking. Journal of Global Marketing, 30 (4), 228-237. 

According to Hall’s context theory, people from different cultures may react differently to complex messages. The current study is the first empirical examination of context theory’s role on message comprehension and appreciation. In a comparative survey-based study (N = 289), Belgian and Dutch participants judged 12 complex product advertisements with visual metaphors. As expected by context theory, perceived complexity was lower for Belgian (a higher-context culture) than for Dutch participants (a lower-context culture), and participants’ personal context culture score fully accounted for this difference. Similarly, ad liking was higher for Belgian than for Dutch participants, and again, this difference was explained by context score.

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